Buy Lotrel (Amlodipine Besylate, Benazepril HCl) antihypertensive drug
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LOTREL (AMLODIPINE, BENAZEPRIL): USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category D
The use of ACE inhibitors during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with fetal and neonatal injury, including hypotension, neonatal skull hypoplasia, anuria, reversible or irreversible renal failure, and death.
Oligohydramnios has also been reported, presumably resulting from decreased fetal renal function; oligohydramnios in this setting has been associated with fetal limb contractures, craniofacial deformation, and hypoplastic lung development.
Prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, and patent ductus arteriosus have also been reported, although it is not clear whether these occurrences were due to the ACE inhibitor exposure.
In addition, use of ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy has been associated with a potentially increased risk of birth defects. In women planning to become pregnant, ACE inhibitors (including benazepril) should not be used. Make women of child-bearing age aware of the potential risk and give Lotrel only after careful counseling and
consideration of individual risks and benefits.
Rarely (probably less often than once in every thousand pregnancies), no alternative to ACE inhibitors will be found. In these rare cases, apprise the mothers of the potential hazards to their fetuses, and perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment.
If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue Lotrel (Amlodipine / Benazepril) unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. Contraction stress testing (CST), a nonstress test (NST), or biophysical profiling (BPP) may be appropriate, depending upon the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury.
Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to ACE inhibitors for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusion or peritoneal dialysis may be required as means of reversing hypotension or substituting for disordered renal function. Benazepril, which crosses the placenta, can theoretically be removed from the neonatal circulation by these means; there are occasional reports of benefit from these maneuvers, but experience is limited.
Labor and Delivery
The effect of Lotrel (Amlodipine with Benazepril) on labor and delivery has not been studied.
Minimal amounts of unchanged benazepril and of benazeprilat are excreted into the breast milk of lactating women treated with benazepril, so that a newborn child ingesting nothing but breast milk would receive less than 0.1% of the maternal doses of benazepril and benazeprilat.
It is not known whether amlodipine is excreted in human milk. Nursing or drug should be discontinued.
Safety and effectiveness of Lotrel (Amlodipine Besylate, Benazepril Hydrochloride) in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the total number of patients who received Lotrel in U.S. clinical studies of Lotrel, over 19% were 65 or older while about 2% were 75 or older. Overall differences in effectiveness or safety were not observed between these patients and younger patients. Clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Benazepril and benazeprilat are substantially excreted by the kidney. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Amlodipine is extensively metabolized in the liver. In the elderly, clearance of amlodipine is decreased with resulting increases in peak plasma levels, elimination half-life and area-under-the-plasma-concentration curve. Thus a lower starting dose may be required in older patients.
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